DefinitionsTerms and Definitions


Affect the play

A breach affects the play if it is reasonable to assume that the outcome of the specific play may have been meaningfully different had the breach not occurred.

Attacking end zone

The end zone in which the team in question is currently attempting to score.

Best perspective

The most complete viewpoint available by a player that includes the relative position of the disc, ground, players and line markers involved in the play.


Any pull that initially lands out-of-bounds, untouched by the receiving team.


A clearly audible statement that a foul, infraction, violation or injury has occurred. The following terms may be used: Foul, Travel, specific name of Marking Infraction, Violation (or specific name of Violation), Stall-Out, Technical and Injury.

Central Zone

The area of the playing field, including the goal lines, but excluding the end zones and the perimeter lines.


Action of a defensive player touching the disc to restart play.

Defending end zone

The end zone in which the team in question is currently attempting to prevent the opposition from scoring.

Defensive player

Any player whose team is not in possession of the disc.

End zone

One of the two areas at the end of the playing field where teams can score a goal by catching the disc there.

Establish a pivot

After a turnover, the pivot point is defined, and the thrower establishes a pivot by placing a part of their body (usually a foot) there. After receiving a pass, a thrower must establish a pivot after they have come to a stop if they wish to then move. They establish the pivot by keeping a part of their body in constant contact with a particular point on the playing field.

Goal line

The line separating the central zone from each end zone.


The ground consists of all substantial solid objects, including grass, marker cones, equipment, water, trees, fences, walls and non-players, but excluding all players and their worn clothing, airborne particles and precipitation.

Ground contact

Refers to all player contact with the ground directly related to a specific event or manoeuvre, including landing or recovery after being off-balance (e.g., jumping, diving, leaning, or falling).


A defender is guarding an offensive player when they are within three meters of that offensive player and are reacting to that offensive player.

Incidental contact

Any contact which is not dangerous in nature and does not affect the play.

Initiate contact

Any movement towards a legally positioned opponent (either their stationary position, or their expected position based on their established speed and direction), that results in unavoidable non-incidental contact.


When a player on the defensive team catches a throw by a player on the offensive team.

Legitimate position

The stationary position established by a players body excluding extended arms and legs that can be avoided by all opposing players when time and distance are taken into account.


A boundary defining the playing areas. On an unlined field, the boundary is defined as an imaginary line between two field markers with the thickness of said markers. Line segments are not extrapolated beyond the defining markers.

Making a play on the disc

When the disc is in the air and a player is attempting to make contact with the disc in any way e.g. to catch it or block it. This includes the process of running towards the place they expect to make contact with the disc.


The defensive player who may call the stall count on the thrower.


Any person, including a team member, who is not currently a player.

Offensive player

A player whose team is in possession of the disc.

Out-of-bounds (OB)

Everything that is not part of the playing field, including the perimeter lines.

Perimeter lines

Lines separating the central zone or end zone from the out-of-bounds area. They are not part of the playing field.


To move in any direction while keeping a part of the body in contact with a single point on the playing field, called the pivot point.

Pivot point

The point on the playing field where the thrower is required to establish a pivot after a turnover, after the pull, after a time-out, after leaving the central zone, or where a pivot has already been established. A thrower may not have established a pivot point if they have not come to a stop and have not pivoted.


The time after the Pull has commenced and prior to the scoring of a goal. Play may further stop due to a call, in which case play is restarted with a check.


One of the up to fourteen (14) persons who are actually participating in the current point of play.

Playing Field

The area including the central zone and the end zones, but excluding the perimeter lines.

Possession of the disc

Sustained contact with, and control of, a non-spinning disc. To catch a pass is equivalent to establishing possession of that pass. Loss of possession due to ground contact related to a pass reception negates that player's possession up to that point. A disc in the possession of a player is considered part of that player. The team whose player is in possession or whose players may pick up the disc is considered the team in possession.


The throw from one team to the other that starts play at the beginning of a half or after a goal. The pull is not considered a legal pass.


All offensive players other than the thrower.

Stoppage of play

Any halting of play due to a foul, violation, discussion, injury or time-out that requires a check to restart play.


A disc in flight following any throwing motion, including after a fake attempt and an intentionally dropped disc, that results in loss of contact between the thrower and the disc. A pass is the equivalent of a throw.


The offensive player in possession of the disc, or the player who has just thrown the disc prior to when the result of the throw has been determined.

Throwing motion

The throwing motion is the motion that transfers momentum from the thrower to the disc in the direction of flight and results in a throw. Pivots and wind-ups are not part of the act of throwing.


Any event resulting in a change of the team in possession. A turnover is not considered a violation.

Where the disc stops

Refers to the location where a disc is caught, comes to rest naturally, or where it is stopped from rolling or sliding.

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