Players A has the disc and a Pick is called upfield.
The 10 upfield players all stop playing, but Player A and Player B hasn't noticed the call. Player A throws to Player B but the pass is incomplete.
One of the upfield players claims that he would have been able to provide a better passing option for Player A if he hadn't stopped playing.
Should the turnover stand? My own interpretation is that none of the exceptions to 16.1 would apply in this case so no turnover should be possible. I think the biggest contention is on wether 16.3 applies since it was an upfield player who says the event affected the outcome and not one of the two throwers who didn't hear the call.
Given the pick was called before the disc was in the air, 16.3 is the only way the turnover could stand. But for that to occur, the players involved from both teams would need to agree that the pick call did not affect the outcome - and it seems that is not the case, so 16.3 would not apply.